This is a companion article to the feature, “Healthcare-Associated Infections.”

For clinicians and laboratorians alike, understanding the utility of rapid diagnostics is a major step on the way toward slowing the spread of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Fortunately, there is already a significant body of literature that describes and discusses the use of such tests for detecting many different HAIs, including a small but growing number of antibiotic-resistant species of those organisms. Following is a sampling of pertinent sources for members of the clinical laboratory community.

About antimicrobial resistance: A brief overview [online]. Atlanta: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013. Available at: Accessed June 10, 2015.

Bruins M, Verbeek E, Wallinga JA, Bruijnesteijn Van Coppenraet LE, Kuijper E, Bloembergen P. Evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification test for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31(11):3035–3039; doi: 10.1007/s10096-012-1658-y.

Claus D, Osmand A, Gewurz H. Radioimmunoassay of human C-reactive protein and levels in normal sera. J Lab Clin Med. 1976;87(1):120–128.

Crobach MJT, Dekkers OM, Wilcox MH, Kuijper EJ. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID): data review and recommendations for diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:1053–1066; doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03098.x.

Culbreath K, Ager E, Nemeyer RJ, Kerr A, Gilligan PH. Evolution of testing algorithms at a university hospital for detection of Clostridium difficile infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(9):3073–3076; doi: 10.1128/JCM.00992-12.

Feeney SA, Armstrong VJ, Mitchell SJ, Crawford L, McCaughey C, Coyle PV. Development and clinical validation of multiplex TaqMan assays for rapid diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis. J Med Virol. 2011;83(9):1650–1656; doi: 10.1002/jmv.22162.

Jarvis W, Schlosser J, Jarvis A, Chinn R. National point prevalence of Clostridium difficile in US healthcare facility inpatients, 2008. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37(4):263–270; doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2009.01.001.

Kanavaki S, Karabela S, Makarona M. Laboratory diagnosis of Legionnaires’ disease in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Pneumon. 2003;16(1):181–188.

Kawada M, Masuda Y, Inamatsu T, et al. Evaluation of a simultaneous detection kit for the glutamate dehydrogenase antigen and toxin A/B in feces for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. J Infect Chemother. 2011;17(6):807–811; doi: 10.1007/s10156-011-0267-5.

Lee Y, Wang J, Chen A, Sheng W, Chang S, Chen Y. Changing incidence and clinical manifestations of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea detected by combination of glutamate dehydrogenase and toxin assay in Northern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2012;45(4):287–295; doi: 10.1016/j.jmii.2011.12.001.

Matta M, Kernéis S, Day N, et al. Do clinicians consider the results of the BinaxNOW Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen test when adapting antibiotic regimens for pneumonia patients? Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16(9):1389–1393; doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03088.x.

O’Brien J, Lahue B, Caro J, Davidson D. The emerging infectious challenge of Clostridium difficile–associated disease in Massachusetts hospitals: clinical and economic consequences. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28(11):1219–1227.

Orellana-Miguel MA, Alcolea-Medina A, Barrado-Blanco L, Rodriguez-Otero J, Chaves-Sánchez F. Algorithm proposal based on the C. diff Quik Chek complete ICT device for detecting Clostridium difficile infection. Enferm Infecc y Microbiol Clin. 2013;31(2):97–99; doi: 10.1016/j.eimc.2012.01.003.

Respiratory syncytial virus: for healthcare professionals [online]. Atlanta: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015. Available at Accessed June 10, 2015.

SD Bioline Norovirus Ag test [online]. Waltham, Mass: Alere Inc, n.d. Available at: Accessed June 10, 2015.

SD Bioline TB Ag MPT64 [online]. Youngin-Si, South Korea: Standard Diagnostics Inc, n.d. Available at: Accessed June 10, 2015.

Seo JY, Kim PW, Lee JH, et al. Evaluation of PCR-based screening for vancomycin-resistant enterococci compared with a chromogenic agar-based culture method. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60(7):945–949; doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.029777-0.

Sharp SE, Ruden LO, Pohl JC, Hatcher PA, Jayne LM, Ivie WM. Evaluation of the C. diff Quik Chek complete assay, new glutamate dehydrogenase and A/B toxin combination lateral flow assay for use in rapid, simple diagnosis of Clostridium difficile disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48(6):2082–2086; doi: 10.1128/JCM.00129-10.

Shiga Toxin Quik Chek. Waltham, Mass: Alere Inc, n.d. Available at: Accessed June 10, 2015.

Trnovsky J, Merz W, Della-Latta P, Wu F, Arendrup MC, Stender H. Rapid and accurate identification of Candida albicans isolates by use of PNA FISHFlow. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46(4):1537–1540; doi: 10.1128/JCM.00030-08.

Whiting P, Westwood M, Watt I, Cooper J, Kleijnen J. Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under 5 years: a systematic review. BMC Pediatr. 2005;5:4; doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-5-4.